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Disc Golf Rules Explained: Mandatories (Mandos)
Alex WilliamsonWriter, Editor
Jan 5 • 8 min read
A tree with two large branches splitting from its trunk and a red sign that says "mando" with three arrows
A mando in Oak Leaf Park in Glencoe, Minnesota. Credit: Quinn Erickson

The regulations discussed here are based on rules set by the Professional Disc Golf Association (PDGA) that went into effect on January 1, 2022.

Most rules discussed here relate to the regulations under 804.01 in the Official Rules of Disc Golf, which you can find a fully searchable version of in the More tab of the UDisc app.

We want to extend a huge "Thank You" to Todd Lion, the PDGA's Event Support and Training Manager, for reviewing this post prior to publication. Lion helped create the most recent version of the Official Rules of Disc Golf.

This is just one post in our series seeking to help players better understand disc golf rules. If you're interested, check out others on out of bounds, foot faults/legal stances, relief, and the two-meter rule once you've mastered everything below.

What Is a Mandatory (Mando) in Disc Golf?

A mandatory (or, commonly, "mando") is when a course designer or tournament director (TD) mandates how disc golfers' discs can legally pass an obstacle (e.g., a tree or a pole) as they make their way to the basket or other target.

A player who does not pass an object correctly – called "missing a mando" – adds one penalty throw to their score for a hole. If a player misses a mando multiple times or misses multiple mandos on the same hole, each and every miss incurs an additional one-throw penalty.

The mandos disc golfers encounter most often make them go to the left or right of an obstacle.

See an example of a basic disc golf mando below:

Two images. One showing how a hole with no mando can be
The arrow in the right image indicates the direction the mando is forcing disc golfers to take to reach the basket. Mandos can be indicated on courses in many ways, but signs using arrows are the most common.

However, there are occasionally two mandos that work together to force players to go between them. These are typically called double mandos. See below:


And, yes, triple mandos (and above) exist, too:

A disc golfer throwing an awkward forehand through a holes in a bamboo wall
One of the most famous triple mandos in disc golf is the one above used at the prestigious U.S. Disc Golf Championship.

Why Do Mandos Exist in Disc Golf?

Mandos are typically used for at least one of three reasons:

  1. To discourage players from taking a route that puts people or property in danger (e.g., crossing another fairway or throwing over a parking lot typically filled with cars)
  2. To discourage players from taking a route that has a high chance of causing back-ups on a hole (e.g., encouraging players to avoid risky shots over areas of thick rough)
  3. To add difficulty or diversity to a course

With that said, though mandos are a common part of disc golf, they're also highly contentious.

Some people are philosophically opposed to mandos and believe designers and TDs should create holes that more naturally cause players to throw a variety of shot shapes and avoid endangering others or property. On the opposite side of that argument are those who see mandos as a tool to create more interesting, safer courses when given limited space or obstacles to work with.

On the more technical side, mandos are often the stuff of rule-makers' nightmares and frequently lead to confusion and misinterpretation of the correct way to play a hole among players (you'll see examples of why later on). Additionally, the PDGA's course design guidelines strongly discourage incorporating mandos.

When Have You Missed a Mando in Disc Golf?

Mandos create what the PDGA's Official Rules of Disc Golf call "restricted space" (804.01), which is an imaginary plane that will usually extend in the direction opposite of where a mando forces you to throw. The rules specifically say the plane is "vertical," so it will typically extend infinitely upward, too. When your disc fully passes through restricted space, you have missed the mando.

It does not matter if the throw is your first, second, third, etc. on a hole. If you cross the restricted space, you’ve missed a mando and receive a penalty. 

It does not matter from which direction your disc enters the restricted space. If you pass on the correct side of a mando but roll backward through the restricted space, you’ve missed the mando and receive a penalty.

It does not matter where the disc comes to rest. If you cross the restricted space but then kick back out of it, you’ve still missed the mando.

This can all be summed up in a simple statement: If your disc ever crosses the restricted space at any time, you’ve missed the mando.

Fortunately, seeing the rule is a lot easier than reading about it. So we created a few visualizations of restricted space to help you better understand how it works.

This one emphasizes how entering restricted space from any direction results in a missed mando penalty:

A front and aerial view of a mando simulation made with children's toys
Having trouble seeing everything on mobile? Try looking at it in landscape.

The next image drives home how you've missed a mando as soon as your disc fully crosses restricted space no matter where your disc comes to rest. It also offers a different type of visual if the last one didn't click:

Cartoonish trees, baskets, and arrows showing how restricted space for mandos in disc golfworks
Having trouble seeing everything on mobile? Try looking at it in landscape.

As much as we've talked about missing mandos, it's also important to recognize when you've not missed a mando. The only way to miss a mando is to fully cross the restricted space. If a throw comes up short of restricted space, you have not missed the mando.

At this point, we hope you get how restricted space works generally, but you may have questions like, "How do I know how thick the restricted space is?", "How do I know what direction the restricted space extends from a mando object?", or "On something like a tree with multiple branches, where does the restricted space start?".

Those are all excellent questions, but if you're playing a tournament, the only person who can answer them is a TD. The 2022 PDGA rule updates left it entirely up to TDs to define restricted space for any mandatory. For example, an event's caddie book could say, "On hole 14, the first big pine tree is a mandatory object. Seen from the tee, the restricted space starts from the farthest left point of the tree's main trunk and extends infinitely right and upward. There is string to the right of the mandatory indicating the direction in which the restricted space extends from the tree's trunk. The string also defines the thickness of the restricted space."

As you can tell from that example, TDs have to be extremely detailed in their rule descriptions and course setups when they include mandos. If you have questions about a mando before playing a tournament and can't find the resources to answer them, you should contact the TD or ask your questions in the players' meeting before the round begins.

If you're playing a casual round and a course has a mando that isn't well-defined, just use your best judgement to decide what direction and thickness of the restricted space makes the most sense.

How Do You Keep Playing After Missing a Mando?

If you miss a disc golf mando, you receive one penalty throw. There are three possible ways you can continue playing a hole after missing a mando:

  1. Throw from a drop zone
    A drop zone is an area specifically designated as the place players who miss a hole's mando should play their next shot from. Drop zones can be painted lines, alternate tee pads, small plastic circles nailed into the ground, or a number of other things. If the course you're playing has tee signs, drop zone locations (if any) will often be on them.

    Below is a visual example of how a disc golfer might play a hole with a drop zone after missing a mando:A simple illustration of how to play a hole with a drop zone once a mando is missed
  2.  Rethrow from the same position
    If a hole has no drop zone, a player who misses a mando just throws another shot from the exact same place as their last one:
  3. Abandon throw and rethrow from same position
    A player always has the option to abandon any throw and rethrow from the same spot at the cost of a one-throw penalty (809.01). So, even if a hole has a drop zone, a player who misses a mando but would prefer to throw from their previous position rather than the drop zone can do just that by abandoning a throw. Visually, it could look exactly like the image for #2 above – just with a drop zone somewhere that the player would ignore. A player needs to announce to their card that they are abandoning a throw before continuing play.

How Do Mandos Affect the Line of Play in Disc Golf?

As of the January 2022 rules update, mandos have absolutely no effect on the line of play in disc golf. The line of play is always a direct line between a player's lie and the basket.

Those who don't know what "line of play" means can find a detailed description in our post on relief in disc golf. In essence, it's the direction a player has to orient their body toward as they throw. Before the January 2022 rule updates, mandos could affect the line of play. As we said above, that's no longer the case.

What Else Would You Like To Know?

We've been overwhelmed by the positive response to this series and are excited to continue adding to it. If you have rules you'd like us to cover, let us know in a comment on social media or send a quick e-mail to us at releasepoint@udisc.com.

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